Science & Technology in India: Achievements, Research & Development | IBEF (2022)

Introduction

India ranks third among the most attractive investment destinations for technology transactions in the world. Modern India has had a strong focus on science and technology, realising that it is a key element for economic growth. India is among the top countries in the world in the field of scientific research, positioned as one of the top five nations in the field for space exploration. The country has regularly undertaken space missions, including missions to the moon and the famed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). India is likely to take a leading role in launching satellites for the SAARC nations, generating revenue by offering its space facilities for use to other countries.

Science & Technology in India: Achievements, Research & Development | IBEF (1)
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Market size

By 2022, R&D expenditure is targeted to reach about 2% of the country’s GDP. The engineering R&D and product development market in India is forecast to post a CAGR of 12% to reach US$ 63 billion by 2025, from US$ 31 billion in 2019. As per the Economic Survey 2022, India’s gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP stood at 0.66%.

IT spending in India will grow 7% YoY to reach US$ 101.8 billion in 2022, compared to U$ 81.89 billion in 2021.

In FY21, the science and technology sector added 1,497,501 employees, becoming India’s top employment generator.

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India's National Artificial Intelligence Strategy prepared by NITI Aayog outlined a way forward to harness the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in different fields. Accenture offers a framework for assessing the economic effect of AI for selected G20 countries in its latest AI research studies and forecasts that AI will raise India's annual growth rate by 1.3% by 2035.

Science & Technology in India: Achievements, Research & Development | IBEF (2)

Developments/Investments

Some of the recent developments in the field of science and technology in India are as follows:

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  • Actis, a global investor in sustainable infrastructure, is planning to invest over US$ 700 million in order to acquire and expand assets for its platform aimed at offering real estate to tenants in the life sciences and allied sectors in India.
  • In March 2022, Toyota launched its Mirai hydrogen fuel cell car in India. The Indian Oil Corporation would be supplying hydrogen to power the car.
  • India's Top 5 IT firms (TCS, Infosys, Wipro, HCL and Tech Mahindra) added more than 122,000 employees in in the first six months of FY22, nearly matching the 138,000 employees hired in the entirety of FY21.
  • In October 2021, Biz2Credit, a fintech company, announced plan to invest US$ 100 million in India over the next five years on research and development activities and expansions.
  • From 2014 to 2021, India recorded a 572% growth in patent approvals.
  • To accelerate digital innovation in India, NITI Aayog, Amazon Web Services and Intel have come together to develop a new experience studio to boost problem-solving and innovation between government stakeholders, start-ups, enterprises and industry experts. The new experience studio will use technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, Internet of Things, augmented reality, virtual reality, blockchain and robotics to accelerate their use in the public sector.
  • TechnoPro, a Japanese tech firm, plans to hire 10,000 engineers and researchers in India by 2022-23.
  • Qualcomm plans to invest US$ 8.5 million on design initiatives in India, which would include funding its innovation labs at Hyderabad and Bangalore for R&D.

Government Initiatives

Some of the recent initiatives taken by the Government of India are:

  • India has active bilateral science and technology (S&T) programs of cooperation with more than 45 countries, including dedicated programs for Africa, ASEAN, BRICS, EU and neighboring countries.
  • The Department of Science & Technology (DST) has revamped the FIST (Fund for Improvement of S & T Infrastructure in Universities and Higher Educational Institutions) programme to align it with the objective of Atmanirbhar Bharat by developing R&D infrastructure for use by start-ups, manufacturing companies, and MSMEs, in addition to R&D operations in academic organisations.
  • The Women Science programme of DST has started a new initiative to support women PG colleges under the CURIE (Consolidation of University Research for Innovation and Excellence in Women Universities) Program and invited proposals for the same.
  • To further India with High-Performance Computing (HPC), four new Supercomputers have been installed since July 2021 - one each at IIT-Hyderabad, NABI- Mohali, CDAC-Bengaluru, and IIT Kanpur.
  • Synergistic Training Program Utilizing the Scientific and Technological Infrastructure (STUTI), a new initiative, was recently unveiled with the goal of enhancing human resource development and capacity building through nationwide open access to science and technology infrastructure.
  • The Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) has partnered with Intel India to launch a first-of-its-kind initiative to advance deep tech-based research in India.
  • In November 2021, the Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences, in association with Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA), launched the India International Science Festival 2021, a unique platform, with its theme being celebration of creativity in science, technology and innovation for a prosperous India
  • In November 2021, Atal Innovation Mission and Vigyan Prasar collaborated to drive synergies between Atal Tinkering Labs and Vigyan Prasar’s unique platform, Engage With Science.
  • In October 2021, the government announced plans to establish 75 science technology & innovation hubs in India for scheduled castes (SCs) and scheduled tribes (STs) and empower them to contribute to the socio-economic improvement of the country.
  • In October 2021, the government launched the Indian Space Association (ISpA) to accelerate technology advancements and strengthen the space sector in the country.
  • In October 2021, India and Denmark agreed for a five-year plan to implement green strategic partnership for enhancing collaboration in various areas including science and technology.
  • In October 2021, India and Europe held discussions to review the progress on science and technology bilateral cooperation and strengthen efforts on research and innovation.
  • On September 27, 2021, DRDO tested a new version of the Akash Missile, Akash Prime, equipped with an active Radio Frequency (RF) seeker for improved accuracy.
  • In September 2021, Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology, Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences, MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr. Jitendra Singh, launched the ‘AmritGrand Challenge Programme’ called ‘JANCARE’. This programme has been launched to identify 75 start-ups in several sectors such as telemedicine, digital health and mHealth with Big Data, AI, blockchain and other technologies.
  • In September 2021, Atal Innovation Mission and Dassault Systèmes announced their plan to set up an innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem across India.
  • In August 2021, the central government approved Deep Ocean Mission (DOM), which will be implemented by the Ministry of Earth Sciences at a total budget of Rs. 4,077 crore (US$ 548.54 million) for five years. The mission is a multi-ministerial, multi-disciplinary programme to develop deep-sea technologies such as manned submersibles (that are rated for 6,000-metre water depth) and enable deep-sea mining, exploration of deep-sea mineral resources and marine biodiversity, acquisition of a research vessel to explore oceans, conduct deep-sea observations and build capacities in marine biology research.
  • India initiated a landmark policy called Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2020 with core vision of being decentralized, evidence informed, bottom-up, experts-driven, and inclusive. The policy aims to be bring-in the concept of ‘dynamic policy’ with a robust policy governance mechanism incorporating features such as periodic review, policy evaluation, feedback, and adaptation, and a timely exit strategy for various policy instruments.

The Union Budget 2022-23

Under the Union Budget 2022-23, the government announced allocation of Rs. 14,217 crore (US$ 1.86 billion) to the Ministry of Science and Technology. The Department of Atomic Energy was allocated Rs. 22,723.58 crore (US$ 2.97 billion), the Department of Science and Technology (DST) was allocated Rs. 6,000 crore (US$ 785.64 million), and the Ministry of Earth Sciences was allocated Rs. 2,653.51 crore (US$ 347.45 million).

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Road Ahead

India is aggressively working towards establishing itself as a leader in industrialisation and technological development. Significant developments in the nuclear energy sector are likely as India looks to expand its nuclear capacity. Moreover, nanotechnology is expected to transform India’s pharmaceutical industry. The agriculture sector is also likely to undergo a major revamp with the government investing heavily for a technology-driven Green Revolution. Government of India, through the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy-2013, among other things, aspires to position India among the world’s top five scientific powers.

References - Media Reports, Press Releases, Press Information Bureau (PIB), Union Budget 2022-23

Science & Technology in India: Achievements, Research & Development | IBEF (3)
(Video) Essay on Achievements of India In The Field of Science And Technology

FAQs

What are the achievements of India in science and technology? ›

In the past seven decades, India has built satellites and sent probes to the moon and Mars, established nuclear power stations, acquired nuclear weapon capability and demonstrated firepower in the form of a range of missiles. Undoubtedly these are all fabulous achievements of Indian scientists and technologists.

What are the achievements of science and technology? ›

Major achievements in science and technology have provided modern humans with an improved understanding of the natural world, new sources of clean energy, and advances in medicine. Some of the most famous discoveries include the invention of the steam engine and the invention of the computer.

What are the achievements of India after independence in science and technology? ›

One of the greatest achievements of India in the field of science and technology is that it has built aircraft, arms, tanks, EW systems, missile systems, etc. India also became nuclear-powered after testing the first successful nuclear test in 1974 at Pokhran.

Who did development in science and technology in India? ›

The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)—conceived by a 22-member committee of scholars and entrepreneurs in order to promote technical education—was inaugurated on 18 August 1951 at Kharagpur in West Bengal by the minister of education Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.

What are India's greatest achievements? ›

Launching of the Indian Constittuon, eradication of polio, developing of green revolution, right to education for everyone, innovation of science and technology are the 5 achievements of India.

What are the latest achievements of India? ›

Our Achievements
  • India launches 2011 biometric census, the largest census in the world, 2010.
  • Longest rail (4286 km) of India, Vivek Express, is flagged off, 2011.
  • India test-launched the first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, Agni V, 2012 4. Launched INS Vikrant, the first aircraft carrier built in India, 2013.

What are the achievements of science and technology in 21st century? ›

Since the beginning of the new millennium, the world has witnessed the emergence of social media, smartphones, self-driving cars, and autonomous flying vehicles. There have also been huge leaps in energy storage, artificial intelligence, and medical science.

What are the 10 most important inventions in India? ›

11 Great Inventions We Can Thank India For
  • The Zero. ...
  • The Ayurveda. ...
  • The USB (Universal Serial Bus) ...
  • Board games. ...
  • Yoga. ...
  • Shampoo. ...
  • Wireless communication. ...
  • Buttons.

What India has achieved in 75 years? ›

In the 75 years of independence, Indian Infrastructure has improved drastically. The overall length of the Indian road network has grown from 0.399 million km in 1951 to 4.70 million km as of 2015, which makes it the third largest roadway network in the world.

What are the major achievements of India since independence? ›

The achievements made possible through indigenous technologies have also made India a global soft power. The journey of India since August 15, 1947 has been one of development from science and technology, to education, sufficiency in food production among others.

Who is the father of science and technology in India? ›

Credited with establishing 12 national research laboratories in India, internationally acclaimed chemist and scientist Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar is more famously known as the 'father of science and technology', and there is a reason for that.

Who is the No 1 scientist in India? ›

C.V. Raman. Dr. C.V. Raman (Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for his revolutionary work on light scattering. Born in Tiruchirapalli on November 7, 1888, he was the first Asian and non-White beneficiary of the Nobel Prize in the Science field.

Who is the father of science in India? ›

Inspired by lofty nationalistic ideals, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858 - 1937), the father of modern science in the Indian subcontinent, founded Bose Institute.

What are your 3 achievements? ›

'My greatest achievement' examples could include:
  • Giving a great presentation at work.
  • Beating sales targets.
  • Training for and completing a marathon.
  • Organizing a successful charity event.
  • Mentoring a coworker or fellow student.

What was invented in India? ›

Other contributions of India to the world includes Chess, snakes and ladders, basmati rice, yoga, Sanskrit, Ayurveda, water on the moon, plastic surgery, binary system, ink, Fibonacci numbers, fiber optics, USB, and many more.

What is the role of science and technology in Indian history? ›

Over the recent past, Science and Technology has made tremendous contribution towards the settlement of industries in India. Starting from the micro level to the macro level, research and development in the field of technology has created an ideal niche for the overall growth of the economic condition of the country.

What was the role of India in development of science and technology in world explain? ›

Modern India has had a strong focus on science and technology, realising that it is a key element for economic growth. India is among the top countries in the world in the field of scientific research, positioned as one of the top five nations in the field for space exploration.

Where does India stand in science and technology? ›

India has seen an exponential increase in the number of scientific publications over the last 10 years and is in the third position globally after China and the US, the Department of Science and Technology (DST) said on Friday. Of the 13,045 patents in 2017-18, as many as 1,937 were by Indians.

What progress did India make in science and technology in the post independence period? ›

In the past seven decades, India has built satellites and sent probes to the moon and Mars, established nuclear power stations, acquired nuclear weapon capability and demonstrated firepower in the form of a range of missiles. Undoubtedly these are all fabulous achievements of Indian scientists and technologists.

What is status of technology in India? ›

According to the Global innovation index (2020), India ranks 48th overall in terms of innovation and ranks amongst the top 15 nations in Information and Communication Technology and R&D-intensive global companies.

Why is India so good at technology? ›

In the past decade, India has been a hotbed for technology development. This is partly due to Indians' predisposition towards math and science from an early age. In fact, the answer to why Indians are so good at technology lies not only with the education system, but also their culture and upbringing.

What is proud moment for India? ›

26 January 1950 was the most proud moment after Independence, which India had felt. On this date, Indian constitution came into effect and India became a Republic nation with a democratic government system.

What are the achievements of India after Independence essay? ›

In its 72 years of independence, India has several achievements to its credit. It has built a modern economy (second fastest growing economy), remained a democracy, lifted millions out of poverty, has become a space and nuclear power and developed a robust foreign policy.

Why is India important to the world? ›

The economy of India is currently the world's third largest in terms of real GDP (PPP) after the United States of America and the People's Republic of China. According to the World Bank, India overtook China to become the fastest-growing major economy in the world as of 2015.

How much has India developed? ›

India's current HDI score (0.64) is much lower than what any of the developed countries had even in 1980. China reached the 0.64 level in 2004, and took another 13 year to reach the 0.75 level — that, incidentally, is the level at which the UK was in 1980.

Why is India still a developing country? ›

No control in population

India holds the Second rank in the population. India is one of the fastest developing countries, but as compare to population this much development is nothing, India 2017 Population is estimated At 1.34 billion based on the most recent UN Data, the country has doubled in size in just 40 years.

What is India's economy 2022? ›

Economy of the Indian subcontinent was the largest in the world for most of the recorded history up until the onset of colonialism in early 19th century. 1,417,173,173 (2nd; 2022 est.) $3.535 trillion (nominal; 2022 est.) $11.745 trillion (PPP; 2022 est.)

How much India has developed since independence? ›

India is all set to celebrate 75 years of Independence on Monday (15 August 2022). Over the last seven decades, the Indian economy has seen several ups and downs. The country has gone from having a GDP of just Rs 2.7 lakh crore at the time of Independence to now sitting close to Rs 150 lakh crore.

What type of society is India? ›

India is a hierarchical society. Whether in north India or south India, Hindu or Muslim, urban or village, virtually all things, people, and social groups are ranked according to various essential qualities. Although India is a political democracy, notions of complete equality are seldom evident in daily life.

What was the role of India in development of science and technology in world? ›

India's contribution to the science of space is immense. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was established in 1969 to serve as India's national space agency. The first-ever Indian satellite was the 'Aryabhata', which was designed and manufactured in India and was launched on 19th April 1975.

What is the position of India in science and technology? ›

According to the Global innovation index (2020), India ranks 48th overall in terms of innovation and ranks amongst the top 15 nations in Information and Communication Technology and R&D-intensive global companies.

What are the latest achievements of India? ›

Our Achievements
  • India launches 2011 biometric census, the largest census in the world, 2010.
  • Longest rail (4286 km) of India, Vivek Express, is flagged off, 2011.
  • India test-launched the first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, Agni V, 2012 4. Launched INS Vikrant, the first aircraft carrier built in India, 2013.

What is the rank of India in technology? ›

This year India ranks 57th in innovation inputs, the same as last year but higher than 2019. As for innovation outputs, India ranks 45th. This position is the same as last year but higher than 2019. economies.

What is the importance of technologies used in India? ›

Over the recent past, Science and Technology has made tremendous contribution towards the settlement of industries in India. Starting from the micro level to the macro level, research and development in the field of technology has created an ideal niche for the overall growth of the economic condition of the country.

Who is the father of science in India? ›

Inspired by lofty nationalistic ideals, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858 - 1937), the father of modern science in the Indian subcontinent, founded Bose Institute.

What is new technology in India? ›

India is now prepping for cutting-edge technologies including 5G, AI, blockchain, augmented reality & virtual reality, machine learning & deep learning, robots, natural language processing, etc.

What is the impact of technology in India? ›

Technology has impacted some of the vital work sectors of India's development in the last twenty years. For any company to grow, expenditure on Information and communication technology, better HR policies and profitability are some of the fundamental points that need to be addressed.

Which is the biggest feature of Science and Technology? ›

One of the most important feature of scientific method is Repeatibility.

What are your 3 achievements? ›

'My greatest achievement' examples could include:
  • Giving a great presentation at work.
  • Beating sales targets.
  • Training for and completing a marathon.
  • Organizing a successful charity event.
  • Mentoring a coworker or fellow student.

What was invented in India? ›

Other contributions of India to the world includes Chess, snakes and ladders, basmati rice, yoga, Sanskrit, Ayurveda, water on the moon, plastic surgery, binary system, ink, Fibonacci numbers, fiber optics, USB, and many more.

What India has achieved in 75 years? ›

In the 75 years of independence, Indian Infrastructure has improved drastically. The overall length of the Indian road network has grown from 0.399 million km in 1951 to 4.70 million km as of 2015, which makes it the third largest roadway network in the world.

Is India developed country in technology? ›

India was the biggest 'overperformer' in frontier technologies than the country's per capita gross domestic products (GDP) would suggest, according to a recent country-readiness index released by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

Is India a leading country in technology? ›

Besides, More public spending in R&D and in tertiary education is required to make India one of the leading countries in terms of technology.

What is the technology capital of India? ›

Bangalore city is also known as the Silicon Valley of India. It is also referred to as the IT (Information Technology) capital of India. It plays a crucial role in the export of Information Technology. The headquarters of Indian technological organizations are located in this city.

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